Style Guide


1.1 Book Reviews
2.1 Quotations
2.2 Footnotes
2.3 Illustrations
2.4 Tables
2.5 Citations
3.1 Numbers
3.2 Publication dates
3.3 References to other individuals

1.1 Book reviews

Generally, book reviews should be between two and four manuscript pages.

Book review headers

Terry G. Lacy. Ring of Seasons: Iceland—Its Culture and History. Ann Arbor: U Michigan P, 2000. Pp. xiv + 298.

Author acknowledgement appears at the end of the review, right justified:

Marvin G. Slind
Luther College

Header format for special cases

Edited work

Wår lärda Skalde-Fru Sophia Elisabet Brenner och hennes tid. Eds. Valborg Lindgärd, Arne Jönsson, and Elisabet Göransson. Ängelholm: Skåneförlaget, 2011. Pp. 536.

Book in a series

Egil Törnqvist, Strindbergs dramatiska bildspråk. Amsterdam Contributions to Scandinavian Studies 7. Amsterdam: Scandinavisch Instituut, Universiteit van Amsterdam, 2011. Pp. 251.

Translated Work

Hans Christian Andersen, Shadow Pictures from a Journey to the Harz Mountains, Saxon Switzerland, etc. etc., in the Summer of 1831. Trans. Anna Halager. Ed. Sven Hakon Rossel and Monica Wenusch. Vienna: Praesens Verlag, 2011. Pp. 151.

Documenting sources in reviews

If the author quotes from the book being reviewed, the passage is followed by a parenthetic reference.


_____” (p. 34).

_____” (pp. 34–5).

If the author quotes from an outside source, the abbreviated publication information not given in the text appears in a parenthetical reference.


Echoing Frits Staal (“The Meaninglessness of Ritual,” Numen 26:2–22, 1979), then, Glucklich claims that magic is therefore empty of meaning.

This book builds on the work of others (for example, Joan Radner, ed. Feminist Messages, University of Illinois, 1993).

She made it clear that she “cared deeply about folklore” (Jane Q. Smith, “Things I Care About,” The Website of Folklore Opinions,, accessed May 13, 2007).

2.1 Quotations

In-text quotations use “quotation marks” (make sure they’re not ”straight”)

In-text quotations are followed by the citation in parenthesis and the translation, if needed, in square brackets; translations if published follow same rules:

“This is the original language” (##) [“This is the published translation” (##)]

“Original language” (##) [Author’s unpublished translation]

“Original language is English” (##)

Periods and commas following quotations are placed inside the quotation marks if no citation or translation follows; all other punctuation is placed outside:

“For example, say this quotation ends here.”

“But if things were exciting they would end here”!

If a translation or citation follows the quotation (as is most often the case), all punctuation occurs outside the final closing bracket or parenthesis:

… ending of published translation” (##)].

Block quotations do not use quotation marks. Set them off by using two hard returns at the first of the quote and following the quote. Ending punctuation for block quotation occurs before the citation. Unpublished author’s translations following a block quotation are enclosed in parenthesis, as is all ending punctuation:

This is a sample block quotation in the original language. Pretend it’s longer than it really is and we’ll all be happy. (##)

(This is the unpublished author’s translation following the block quotation in the original language.)

Published translations following a block quotation are not enclosed in parenthesis and are treated like the original block quotation.

This is a sample block quotation in the original language. Pretend it’s longer than it really is and we’ll all be happy. (##)

This is a sample published translation of the block quotation. Pretend it’s longer than it really is and we’ll all be happy. (##)

2.2 Footnotes

Footnotes are used for commentary that does not suitably fit into the main body of the article:

1. For discussions of the use of photographs in autobiographical narrative see among others Rugg(1997) and Gunnthórunn Gudmundsdóttir(2003).

Do not use ibid. or op cit. Give the name (date) references each time.

2.3 Illustrations

Illustrations must be submitted as a separate file. TIF is the preferred format. Grayscale files should have a resolution of 300 dpi or better. Line art and music examples should have a resolution of 1200 dpi or better.

“Callouts” should be inserted to indicate where illustrations should appear, e.g.:

Callouts should be placed at the end of the paragraph closest to the point where you would like them to appear.

2.4 Tables

All tables will be reformatted to the journal’s house style and therefore must be submitted in Microsoft Word form, so they can be edited. Tables should appear in consecutive order at the end of their respective article or in a separate file.

Callouts should indicate where tables are to appear within the text. They should be placed at the end of the paragraph nearest to which you’d like the material to appear.

2.5 Citations

Almost all in text citations fall under one of the following:

(Author Year, ##)

(Author Year)

Always supply a date along with the author’s name (unless the name is explicitly mentioned in the immediate context of the quote).  If an author has more than one work published in the same year, you can designate those with: (Wolf 2011a) and (Wolf 2022b), etc. The a, b, c would be listed in the Works Cited section.  Give a date, even if there is only one entry from that author in the bibliography.

Íslenzk fornrit series provides a special challenge. Cite sagas by title and year.
(Gísla saga Súrssonar 1943, 119)

Gísla saga Súrssonar. 1943. In Vestfirðinga sögur. Edited by Björn K. Þórólfsson and Guðni Jónsson. Íslenzk Fornrit 6. 119–276. Reykjavík: Hið íslenzka fornritafélag.
Hákonar saga Hákonarsonar. 2013. Edited by Sverrir Jakobsson, Þorleifur Hauksson, and Tor Ulset. 2 vols. Íslenzk Fornrit 31-2. Reykjavík: Hið íslenzka fornritafélag.
Heimskringla. 1941–51. Edited by Bjarni Aðalbjarnarson. 3 vols. Íslenzk Fornrit 26–8. Reykjavík: Hið íslenzka fornritafélag.
Landnámabók. 1986. Edited by Jakob Benediktsson.Íslenzk Fornrit 5. Reykjavík: Hið íslenzka fornritafélag.
Laxdæla saga.1934. Edited by Einar Ól. Sveinsson.Íslenzk Fornrit 5. Reykjavík: Hið íslenzka fornritafélag.
Eyrbyggja saga.1957. Edited by Einar Ól. Sveinsson. Íslenzk Fornrit 4. Reykjavík: Hið íslenzka fornritafélag.

Here is a helpful page from The Chicago Manual of Style:


For a book with a single author, invert the name in the reference list; in the text, include only the last name. Punctuate and capitalize as shown. To cite a specific passage, a page number or range is included in a text citation (separated from the year by a comma) but not in a reference list, unless the entry is for a chapter, in which case the page range on which the item appears is included (see “Chapter in an Edited Book,” below; see also 9.58–63).

Pollan, Michael. 2006. The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals. New York: Penguin.
(Pollan 2006, 99–100)

A book with an editor in place of an author includes the abbreviation ed. (editor; for more than one editor, use eds.). Note that the text citation does not include ed.

Greenberg, Joel, ed. 2008. Of Prairie, Woods, and Water: Two Centuries of Chicago Nature Writing. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
(Greenberg 2008, 42)


For a book with two authors, only the first-listed name is inverted in the reference list.

Ward, Geoffrey C., and Ken Burns. 2007. The War: An Intimate History, 1941–1945. New York: Knopf.
(Ward and Burns 2007, 52)

For a book with three authors, adapt as follows:

Heatherton, Joyce, James Fitzgilroy, and Jackson Hsu. 2008. Meteors and Mudslides: A Trip through …
(Heatherton, Fitzgilroy, and Hsu 2008, 188–89)

HOWEVER, if the authors have Icelandic names, use et al. (as with four authors below).

Þorleifur Hauksson et al. 2013, 128–9

For a book with four or more authors, include all the authors in the reference list entry (see also 14.76). Word order and punctuation are the same as for two or three authors. In the text, however, cite only the last name of the first-listed author, followed by et al. (see also 15.28).

(Barnes et al. 2008, 118–19)


In the reference list, do not abbreviate Edited by or Translated by. See also 14.88.

García Márquez, Gabriel. 1988. Love in the Time of Cholera. Translated by Edith Grossman. London: Cape.
(García Márquez 1988, 242–55)


In citations of a chapter or similar part of an edited book, include the chapter author; the chapter title, in quotation marks; and the editor. Precede the title of the book with In. Note the location of the page range for the chapter in the reference list entry. See also 14.111–17.

Gould, Glenn. 1984. “Streisand as Schwarzkopf.” In The Glenn Gould Reader, edited by Tim Page, 308–11. New York: Vintage.
(Gould 1984, 310)


Citations of journals include the volume and issue number and date of publication. The volume number follows the italicized journal title in roman and with no intervening punctuation. A specific page reference is included in the text; the page range for an article is included in the reference list, preceded by a colon. The issue number often appears in parentheses (as in the first pair of examples below). If a journal is paginated consecutively across a volume or if the month or season is included in the reference list entry, however, the issue number (or month or season) may be omitted (as in the second and third pairs of examples).

Blair, Walter. 1977. “Americanized Comic Braggarts.” Critical Inquiry 4 (2): 331–49.
(Blair 1977, 331–32)

For citations of journals consulted online, Chicago recommends the inclusion of a DOI or a URL; the DOI is preferred to a URL (see 14.5, 14.6). Note that DOI, so capitalized when mentioned in running text, is lowercased and followed by a colon (with no space after) in source citations.

Novak, William J. 2008. “The Myth of the ‘Weak’ American State.” American Historical Review 113:752–72. doi:10.1086/ahr.113.3.752.
(Novak 2008, 758)

When no DOI has been provided along with the article at the site where it is consulted (even if one has been assigned), include a URL. The URL in the following example—consulted through the online journals archive JSTOR—was listed along with the article as a more stable (and shorter) alternative to the URL that appeared in the browser’s address bar:

Karmaus, Wilfried, and John F. Riebow. 2004. “Storage of Serum in Plastic and Glass Containers May Alter the Serum Concentration of Polychlorinated Biphenyls.”Environmental Health Perspectives 112 (May): 643–47.
(Karmaus and Riebow 2004, 645)

If you have further questions, see part three, section 15 of the 17th edition of The Chicago Manual of Style.

References indicating a note, figure, or other such material on the page have the author’s last name, page number, comma, then abbreviation:

n. # = note number

par. # = paragraph number

fig. # = figure number

(Author ##, n. #)

If there are no page numbers in the original material, omit in citation (for example, a webpage). At times, a paragraph number may be substituted if it makes sense to do so.

3.1 Numbers

Page ranges should be changed so that only the numbers actually changing are shown. For example:

125–6 not 125–26

125–32 not 125–132

17–8 not 17–18

206–7 not 206–07

Date ranges should include decade year, even if it does not change, or else use the entire date

1964–66 not 1964–6

1964–1966 also acceptable

BCE/CE is preferred to BC/AD

Write out numbers under 100 (sixty instead of 60) unless they are an age, percentage, or dateWrite out centuries (twentieth century instead of 20th century)

Write out percent unless in a figure, table, graph, etc.: 75 percent not 75%

3.2 Publication dates

Publication dates follow title in parenthesis; if translation of title is included, place a semi colon after the date, space, then translation of the title (italicized if it’s published, pub. date optional—up to the author)

Original Title in English (1864)

Original Title in Another Language (1864; Unpublished Title Translation)

Original Title in Another Language (1864; Published Title Translation)

Original Title in Another Language (1864; Published Title Translation [1870])

3.3 References to other individuals

The first time an individual’s name is mentioned in the text of an article, the full name should be used. Afterward, only the last name should be used, unless it is unlikely that the reader will remember the full name and this information is necessary.